Cuba Snapshot: Key Facts

Gain insights into Cuba's culture, economy, and politics

Vintage cars on colorful Havana street with futuristic overlay.

Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean, boasts an intriguing blend of colonial history, revolutionary fervor, and vibrant cultural expressions, all under the warmth of a tropical sun. This enigmatic country, shrouded in decades of political isolation, is a place of paradoxes where vintage cars rumble down streets lined with Spanish architecture, and the rhythms of salsa and son fill the air.

  • Surface Area: 109,884 Km2.
  • Population: Roughly 11.3 million people, all experts in the art of living joyously.
  • Capital: Havana (Habana). 2.1 million hab.; a city frozen in time with a heartbeat that echoes through its colorful streets.
  • Official Language: Spanish. But here, it’s spoken with a musical lilt that dances through the air.
  • Religion: Predominantly Catholic, but with a rich blend of African and indigenous influences. It’s a spiritual salsa!
  • Currency: Cuban Peso (CUP) and Convertible Peso (CUC). 1 USD is approximately 24 CUP, but who’s counting when you’re sipping a mojito by the Malecón?
  • Weather: Tropical. Think sun-kissed days and balmy nights, with a side of occasional rain to cool things down.
  • Biodiversity: Not just beaches. Cuba’s ecosystems range from mangroves to mountains, nurturing a fascinating array of wildlife.
  • Protected Areas: 211, including 6 Biosphere Reserves. Mother Nature’s very own VIP lounge.
  • National Beverage: Rum. And it’s not just a drink, it’s a way of life. Also, don’t forget the Cuban coffee – strong, dark, and capable of powering a salsa night.
  • Gastronomy: A delightful mishmash. Think Spanish, African, Caribbean, and a pinch of Communist rationing. It’s history on a plate.
  • Export Products: Sugar, cigars, and the infectious joy of Cuban music.
  • Culture: Home to salsa, son, and the cha-cha-cha. Cuba’s cultural tapestry is as rich as its history.
  • Artists: The land of Gloria Estefan, Celia Cruz, and Wifredo Lam. Plus, a whole brigade of musicians whose names you might not know, but whose tunes you’ve definitely danced to.
  • Best Period to Visit Cuba: All year round – each season brings its own Cuban flavor.
  • Unique Features: It’s the only Caribbean island with a revolution as famous as its rum!

Geography and Climate

Island Location

Sprawled across the mouth of the Gulf of Mexico, Cuba’s prime Caribbean sea location is a stone’s throw away from its northern neighbor, Florida. The island unfurls over 1,200 kilometers, flanked by sandy beaches and sheltered bays, while inland, rugged mountains and fertile valleys offer a diverse palette for the adventurous.

Climate Variability

Fancy a year-round summer? Cuba’s subtropical climate serves up hot, yet bearable temperatures. However, keep your wits about you from June to November when hurricanes can gatecrash your beach party.

Political Landscape

Government Structure

At the helm stands the Cuban Communist Party, the only legal party steering Cuba’s socialist ship since Fidel Castro’s revolutionary wave in 1959. The government, a central figure in daily life, oversees economic decisions and social programs, projecting its influence from the bustling streets of Havana to the rural tobacco fields of Viñales.

Historical Overview

Cuba’s timeline is a tapestry woven with threads of Taino heritage, Spanish conquest, African influences, and the defining moment of the 20th century—Castro’s revolution. The island has since marched to the beat of its own drum, often out of step with global trends.


Key Industries

Sugar once reigned, but tourism now wears the crown, followed by nickel mining and biotech innovations. Agricultural gems like tobacco birth world-famous cigars, while the lure of rum and coffee sweetens the pot for visitors.

Economic Challenges

U.S. embargoes, resource limitations, and a dual currency conundrum have been long-standing economic hurdles. Despite these, Cuba persists, searching for sustainable growth avenues.


Population Statistics

With over 11 million inhabitants, Cuba’s population tapestry is rich, revealing threads of Spanish, African, and indigenous origins.

Cultural Diversity

The Cuban culture is a melting pot where Santería rituals whisper alongside Catholic prayers, and European, African, and Caribbean influences dance together on the vibrant streets.

Culture and Society

Music and Art Influence

Music and art aren’t just hobbies; they’re the heartbeat of Cuban society. From the visual feast of street art to the infectious beats of the Buena Vista Social Club, creativity oozes from every corner.

Cuban Cuisine

The island’s cuisine is an unpretentious affair that mixes Spanish, African, and Caribbean flavors. Ever tried a hearty plate of ropa vieja or a sweet guava pastelito? If not, your taste buds are missing out!

Sports and Recreation

Baseball is king, and boxing is its queen. Sports fanatics will find their arena here, where passion and prowess go hand in glove. And for those who prefer a slower pace? Fishing or dominoes might just be your Cuban cup of tea.

Education System

Literacy Rates

Cuba prides itself on high literacy rates, a testament to its free education system, from primary school to university. A literate society is a knowledgeable society, right?

Higher Education

Higher education is as accessible as a beach on the coast, with universities nurturing the next generation of doctors, engineers, and artists, all eager to leave their mark.



Healthcare in Cuba is universal, free, and a source of national pride. The island’s medical diplomacy, exporting doctors worldwide, is as renowned as its cigars.

Health Indicators

Impressive health indicators place Cuba on the global map, with life expectancy and infant mortality rates rivaling those of developed nations.


Popular Destinations

From the cobbled lanes of Old Havana to the pristine shores of Varadero, Cuba’s destinations are as diverse as they are magnetic. And let’s not forget the verdant valleys of Viñales, which offer a peaceful retreat from the city’s hustle.

Impact on Economy

Tourism is the lifeblood of Cuba’s economy, a much-needed financial infusion that supports local businesses and preserves the rich cultural tapestry that makes Cuba unique.

Relations with Other Countries

US-Cuba Relations

It’s complicated, to say the least. Decades of embargoes and travel restrictions have created a rocky relationship, though recent years have seen a thaw, offering a glimmer of hope for closer ties.

Cuba in International Organizations

Cuba’s role in international organizations is often underscored by its medical contributions and solidarity campaigns, despite the shadow of political scrutiny.

Challenges and Opportunities

Political and Economic Reforms

The island stands at a crossroads, with economic reforms slowly unfolding and the internet ushering in a wave of global interconnectedness. Can Cuba adapt while staying true to its revolutionary ideals?

Environmental Concerns

Blessed with natural beauty, Cuba faces the universal challenge of environmental conservation. The balance between development and preservation is as delicate as the ecosystems it seeks to protect.


Cuba is an enigma wrapped in a riddle, shrouded in revolutionary history. It’s a country where the past and present collide, creating a dynamic landscape that beckons travelers in search of authenticity. So, are you ready to explore this island of contrasts, where every step tells a story and every sight unveils a chapter in the grand narrative of Cuba? Dive into the rhythm of the streets, savor the flavors of tradition, and discover a country that defies expectations at every turn. And who knows? You might just find yourself on an unforgettable tour that traces the vibrant pulse of this Caribbean gem.